Instructor Email : david.ball@coloradoearlycolleges.org

SPRING 2019 COURSE SYLLABUS

Current Work - Completed Work - Class Resources

- - - COMPLETED WORK - - -

Monday April 15 - In Class Computer Lab

Sculpture - CH 12 PG 298 Christo Over the River.pdf

- - -

1- Over The River

2 - www.denverpost.com/2017/01/25/christo-over-the-river-project

3 - https://christojeanneclaude.net

- - -

Extra - Search for "Andy Goldsworthy"

How is he the same as Christo? How is he different

"Surrealism" Part A & B

DUE FRI April 12

Part A -Surrealism Slide Show - 15pts - Class Handout #1 - April 3

NEW READING = W of Art CH 20 Reading Pgs 494-503

"Surrealism" Overview - Reading and Notes
Write a Few Notes from each of these online resources:

www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surrealism

https://www.khanacademy.org/surrealism

The Case for Surrealism

www.khanacademy.org/surrealism

www.theartstory.org/movement-surrealism.htm

Surrealism Techniques Slideshow

Search for Images by these Surrealist Artists
Max Ernst- Salvador Dalí - Joan Miró - Rene Magritte - Man Ray
- Yves Tanguy - Meret Oppenheim - Giorgio de Chirico

At these Pinterest pages OR an image search source of your own
find a “derivative” or "copy" of Surrealist techniques or "visual trick"
https://www.pinterest.com/explore/surrealism/
https://www.pinterest.com/bevskiwolf/surreal-surrealism/
https://www.pinterest.com/explore/surrealism-painting/

 

SLIDE SHOW SAMPLE

01-Surrealism-Techniques

Surrealism-Compare-Samples 2

"Theme" Essay about Works by Selected Painter - Wed April 3rd

DUE As an emailed PDF prior to and Hardcopy in class

Paper Requirements & Outline Suggestions - Class Handout 3-22

Samples of General Essays

A-The Vibrant Vermeer Essay

A-Okeefe Essay

A-Frida+Kahlo_Essay

Phase 1 - Choose an Artist and Possible Theme
Due Wed March 20 - Fri March 22

Handout 1 - List of Artists

Handout 2 First Choice Fill Out Form

 

- NOW Due Monday April 1 -

CH 9 Painting- Homework Reading Pages 182-210
Class Handout.pdf

Beyond the Frame Artists

a. Elizabeth Murray

b. Frank Stella

c. Banksy

d. Sol Lewitt

- - -

Video about Fresco Technique

- - -

Vatican Museum - 3d Tour of Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel - (Ceiling Only)
Click on Arrow to move further into room

Smart History Video - Sistine Chapel
Take Notes

Please read this page michelangelo-ceiling-of-the-sistine-chapel

Libyan Sibyl Drawing (In our book) at Met Museum

 

Wed March 20

Song of the Day (197million views) - Vivaldi - Four Seasons - Spring

 

Additional Mid Term Hints - March 15

Mid Term Prep Assignment - A
DUE FRI MARCH 15 (Was Wed Mar 13)
(Class Handout Monday March 11)

Mid Term - Monday March 18

A - Image Identification -
Need to Know: Title of Work - Name of Artist - Date -
Where it is / Why it is in Textbook
/ Concept Discussed

Images Draft 1.pdf

 

B. Glossary of Terms - Highlighted in Yellow
Glossary - Highlighted.pdf

Need to Know: Meaning of Term
Where it is / Why it is in Textbook
/ Concept Discussed

DUE MON MARCH 11 - CH 6 - Time and Motion -= Q&A Class Handout

Calder Mobile at National Gallery East Wing - Washington, DC

- - -

Narrative Art

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramatic_structure

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climax_(narrative)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plot_(narrative)

- - -

ttps://www.youtube.com/How Pollock Painted (MoMA)

https://www.wikiart.org/en/jackson-pollock

- - -

Extras from MoMA (Watch at least first 3 minutes)

Long Discussion (Abstraction) - By Same MoMa Curator

Long Discussion - (Picasso Cubism) - MoMA Curator

- - -

Bill Viola

The Greeting

Exhibition Overview Samples

https://www.youtube.com/bill viola

 

HOMEWORK - DUE FRI MARCH 8
CH 1 & 2 Reading Q&A - Class Handout

https://www.youtube.com/MoMA Intro

Watch quickly = Doug Aitken 2007 Sleepwalkers - MOMA Courtyard
5 12-minute-videos on Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) Courtyard Walls

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doug_Aitken

https://www.google.com/doug+aitken

- - -

footprints of history

https://www.google.com/Cai+Guo-Qiang

- - -

Chinese Camel - Tang Dynasty

- - -

Mickalene Thomas

Edouard Manet

- - -

dekooning

- - -

Vocabulary Term = wikipedia.org/wiki/Avant-garde

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_(Michelangelo)

TAKE NOTES: https://www.khanacademy.org/michelangelo-david

 

Writing and Art

Two Contemporary Female American Artists & Writing

https://www.youtube.com/jennyholzer

https://www.youtube.com/jennyholzer - fort worth

https://www.youtube.com/Barbara Kruger

https://www.youtube.com/Barbara Kruger 2

 

https://www.youtube.com/bobdylan

https://www.youtube.com/billyjoel

https://www.youtube.com/motion type

 

https://www.youtube.com/jenny holzer

 

https://www.google.com/ed+ruscha

this-is-why-owen-wilson-loves-ed-ruschas-work/

 

robert+indiana+love

http://tampamuseum.org/exhibition/robert-indiana-a-sculpture-retrospective/

 

 

 

HOMEWORK - DUE MON MARCH 4 CH 22 The Cycle of Life

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhavacakra

images -

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghent_Altarpiece

Van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece - video

Leonardo Da Vinci

judgement-in-the-presence-of-osiris-
hunefer-s-book-of-the-dead
- video

 

Warhol - Death and Disaster
Response to Tabloid Papers
(and not just soup cans)

Damien Hirst - Shark
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uDuzy-t7GDA

Damien Hirst - Diamond covered Skull
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_the_Love_of_God

 

Smarthistory Search = Death


NEW READING DUE FEB 25 - CH 7 Design Principles Class Handout Q & A

Scale - Powers of Ten Proportion - Parthenon


NEW READING DUE FEB 27 - CH 7 Design Principles - Continued

Class Handout Q & A

 

 

- - -

Friday MARCH 1 Class Discussion - Don Goede Exhibit - Manitou Art Center

http://www.manitouartcenter.org/

https://www.meetup.com/Manitou-Art-Center-MAC-shop/

https://www.peakradar.com/artist/don-goede/

https://www.peakradar.com/categories/visual-arts/

http://www.smokebrush.org/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7OXh0R7Dd0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skoINX7fIkE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJdhVREpFrk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Yw5doHeYb0

- - -


- CLASSWORK FEB 22 -

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincent_van_Gogh

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loving_Vincent

https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=loving+vincent

song of the day - Starry Starry Night (Cover)

GETTING TO KNOW VINCENT VAN GOGH'S - STARRY NIGHT

DUE FEB 22 - Q & A Page Class Handout

VISIT THE RESOURCES BELOW - Take Notes at Each -

2

1 - W of A - Closer Look : Van Gogh - Starry Night

2- Art Sleuth - Van Gogh - Starry Night | 12 mins

3 - The Art Assignment | PBS Digital Studios - The Starry Night | 8 mins

4 - Google Art Project - Van Gogh - Starry Night - Zoom In !

5 - Drawings that are sometimes studies for Paintings - Van Gogh Drawings Blog

(This is part 5 of a 5-part post on the drawings of Vincent van Gogh (1853 - 1890). Vincent van Gogh's more than 1,100 drawings remain comparatively unknown, although they are among his most ingenious and striking creations. He engaged drawing and painting in a rich dialogue, which enabled him to fully realise the creative potential of both means of expression.
Note: Where a drawing relates to a finished oil painting the painting is also shown.)

6 - WikiArt - Notice the development of Van Gogh's drawing skill during his short career.

Notice the differences between the preparatory drawing and the painting.


- - - EXTRAS FOR FURTHER UNDERSTANDING, FUN AND BEAUTY - - -

A - Starry Night Animated

B - Loving Vincent Movie Trailer

C - The Making of Loving Vincent Movie

D - Starry Night Song - Cover - From Loving Vincent - Lianne La Havas

E - Original Starry Night Song - Don McClean


 

- - -

CH 5 - Light and Color - Q & A DUE FEB 20

https://color.adobe.com/create/color-wheel/

- Quick Slide Shows - to Reinforce Reading -

A -Sayre 6th Edition Chapter 6 Light and Color

B - Light and Color

- - -

SELFIE Creative Project - Online resource

NOW Recommending this: https://www.photopea.com/

https://www.freeonlinephotoeditor.com/

(Save each adjustment as a png file)

Misc Links

https://smarthistory.org/leonardo-virgin-of-the-rocks/

https://www.sessions.edu/color-calculator/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color

https://www.colormatters.com/

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=goH0BJEYvM8

Cai+Guo-Qiang+Project+to+Extend+the+Great+Wall+of+China

https://www.google.com/james+turrell+art

 

- - -

- Chapter 3 Line -

READ PG 48-65 Skip 57-61 DUE FEB 15 - Class Handout Q&A Homework

Misc Links

https://paulding.instructure.com/types-of-line - Lecture

https://www.google.com/Matthew+Ritchie

https://www.google.com/=Yoshitomo+Nara

https://www.scmp.com/magazines/48hrs/article/1728517/yoshitomo-nara-neo-pop-artist

https://asiasociety.org/blog/asia/yoshitomo-nara

https://www.blumandpoe.com/artists/yoshitomo-nara

https://www.google.com/ellsworth+kelly+drawings

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assumption_of_the_Virgin_(Titian)

- - -

 

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/draw

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/draft

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/drag

https://www.youtube.com/4 part BBC drawing series

https://www.youtube.com/channel/drawing academy

- - -

da vinci - cassatt - van gogh - picassso - matisse - michelangelo - raphael

botticelli - turner - tiepolo - clemins - kollwitz - cezanne - delacroix - lewitt - kelly

https://artsandculture.google.com/drawing

https://artsandculture.google.com/chalk

https://artsandculture.google.com/pencil

https://artsandculture.google.com/pen

https://artsandculture.google.com/graphite

https://artsandculture.google.com/color pencil

- - -

DUE MON FEB 11 - CH 8 - Drawing Pg 158-181

Song of the Day A-ha - Take On Me

- - -

how+to+draw+in+charcoal+for+beginners

- - -

Raphael+drawings

Leonardo Drawings

georges+seurat+drawings

degas++pastels

degas+woman+bather

mary+cassatt+pastels

Vija+Celmins

william+kentridge+art

matisse+drawings

matisse+blue+nudes

frank+auerbach+drawings

how-its-made-frank-auerbach

van gogh drawings

 

READING & HW7 - WED FEB 6

HW7 Questions Class Handout - DUE FEB 6

FEB 6 - Song of the Day - Coldplay - The Scientist

Part 5 - Themes of Art Intro - Pgs 528-529

CH 27 - Science, Technology and the Environment - Pgs 638-657

en.wikipedia.org/Goddess_of_Democracy

Maya Lin - Disappearing Bodies of Water - Video

David Brooks- Artwork Survey - Images

- - -

Leonardo Da Vinci - As Scientist - Inventor -

Drawings

Vitruvian Man

- - -

18th-19th Century Art about Medicine

 

- - -

sculptures+made+of+ocean+plastic

damien hirst shark

damien hirst science

- - -

damien hirst - video

- - -

earth art

de maria lightning field

 

- - - -

Song of the Day ?

ONE ? or TWO ?

FRIDAY FEB 8 - Class Handout

Read CH 2 Pg 39-45
Closer Looks & Videos View These Narrated Slide Shows & Answer Questions

Van Eyck - Double Portrait

A - Van Eyck - Double Portrait - Smart History

B - Van Eyck - Double Portrait - Closer Look

C - Van Eyck - Double Portrait - Discovering Art

Read over this Wikipedia article https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnolfini_Portrait

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_van_Eyck

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madonna_of_Chancellor_Rolin

- - -

Basquiat - Charles the First

Basquiat - Charles the First

Quickly skim over this book review:
basquiat-exploring-ambivalence-in-american-art

More About Basquiat - For Class Discussion

1 - https://www.google.com/search?Basquait

2 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k4CYl_icbGM

3 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ki1JNuuFuEM

 

https://www.wikiart.org/en/jean-michel-basquiat

 

A picture is worth...

 

- - -

Charlie Parker - Music

History of Jazz Series by Ken Burns

- - -

Christina’s World by Andrew Wyeth, 1948.

Written Answers - "Researching" for more background information and context.

Christina’s World by Andrew Wyeth, 1948. (Can become Larger in its own window)

A - Describe the Painting - Your First Impression - Do Not Research - Anything is Fine- No Right or Wrong

What is being shown ? What might be happening ? Who might the person be ? What might have already happened ?

 

B - Research - Take A Few Notes

web pages - Take Few Quick Notes

Look Over these Pages - Add a few Notes -
No Need to Wander Just Read these pages and make any notes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

http://www.galleryintell.com/christinas-world-andrew-wyeth/

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/painting-christinas-world

pdf open and read this pdf - notice some information you have NOT read before - anything new?

Wyeth_Painting.pdf

image search look at the google image search for the painting title

Write a few ideas or things you see as you scan the page of image results (No need to go to any page)

video https://www.youtube.com/

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olson_House_(Cushing,_Maine)

 

At the end of your page write 2-3-4 sentences that begin with the phrase: (Chose one)

I find the painting "Christina's World" by Andrew Wyeth ironic because..."

I find the painting "Christina's World" by Andrew Wyeth mysterious because..."

I find the painting "Christina's World" by Andrew Wyeth intriguing because..."

I will randomly ask students to read their writing in class on Fri Feb 8

- - -

FEB 1

Pablo Picasso- Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1907

www.khanacademy.org/picasso-guitarist - video

www.khanacademy.org/inventing-cubism - article

- - -

- JAN 30 -

classic 1971 - coke commercial

- - -

READING PG 33-38 - HW-5 - DUE MON JAN 28
HW5 Pop Art / Abstraction Definitions JAN 28 (Class Handout 1-25)
song for the day - Candle in the Wind (Marilyn Monroe) - Elton John

- - -

READING CH20 PG 494-499 - HW-6 - DUE WED JAN 30 (Class Handout 1-28)
Link: The beginnings of abstraction: https://www.theartstory.org

- - -

 

Project 2 - DUE Monday Feb 4th (New Date - More Time) - 20 pts
NOTE: We will work on this in class on Wed. JAN 30.

From Representation to Abstraction to Non-Objective - Slideshow

Read / Scan over this web page to enhance your understanding
wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_art

- - -

Choose any ONE artist below WHO DURING THEIR CAREER MADE THE TRANSITION FROM

representation to abstraction to non-objective art.

Make a 5-10 page slide show about the artist and the transformation in their work.

Click on "View All Artworks" at bottom of page for chronologically ordered list.

wassily-kandinsky

jackson-pollock

clyfford-still

piet-mondrian

henri-matisse

paul-klee

auguste-herbin

gerhard-richter

Kazimir Malevich

Henry-Moore

georgia-o-keeffe

mark-rothko

( less well known )

Lyubov Popova

Aleksandra-Ekster

Oleksandr-Bogomazov

Vasyl-Yermylov

Johannes-Itten

Hilma-Klint

SAMPLES OF STUDENT WORK: EXAMPLE 1.pdf - EXAMPLE 2.pdf

- - -

SLIDE SHOW CONTENTS

Page 1 - Title Page

"A transition from from
representation to abstraction to non-objective
as seen in the work of ____________

Image of Artist - Years Alive

Student Name

- - -

AT A BEGINNING PAGE - or between sections -
SHOW THESE THE THREE TERMS & DEFINTION:

representational art
Any work of art that seeks to resemble the world of natural appearance.

abstract art
The rendering of images and objects in a stylized or simplified way,
so that though they remain recognizable, their formal or expressive aspects are emphasized.

non-representational art - or - non-objective art
Art that makes no reference to the natural world and that explores the
inherent expressive or aesthetic potential of the formal elements—line, shape, color—and the formal
compositional principles of a given medium.

- - -

Page 2 - A 1-paragraph description of the artist

Page 3-4 : Samples of their "representational" work
Name of Work - Year Created

Page 5-6 : Samples of "abstraction" in their work (recognizable but very stylized)
Name of Work - Year Created

Page 7-8 : Samples of "non-objective" work
(non-representational - not a picture of anything in the world - completley abstract)
Name of Work - Year Created

- - -

PLEASE SAVE YOUR FILE AS A PDF - Email your Slide Show to Instructor

FILE NAME SHOULD BE =" LASTNAME-ART110-ABSTRACTION-SLIDES-FEB1.PDF "

- DUE Before Class - Monday Feb 4th -

Andy Warhol - Silkscreen Printing Demonstration

 

HW ASSIGNMENT 4 - DUE FRIDAY JAN 25

Introduction to American Pop Art & Andy Warhol

Elvis Presley Singing

- - -

DUE Fri JAN 25 - Take Notes & Answer This Question Sheet (Class Hand Out - Wed JAN 23) -
(You can copy and paste the questions into your text editor
)

Read About American Pop Art:

www.khanacademy.org - pop-art first page only

www.khanacademy.org- warhol-marilyn-diptych

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pop_art (Read Origins, United States Only)

Watch videos about Pop Art and Andy Warhol

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZTsbJcr9VI

www.khanacademy.org- the-case-for-andy-warhol

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ekGySlb2iyQ

Choose Art by Andy Warhol (LOAD MORE at Page Bottom)

https://www.wikiart.org/en/andy-warhol/mode/all-paintings

Chose some quotes by Andy Warhol

https://www.brainyquote.com/authors/andy_warhol

- - -

Pop Art Overview - (Quickly Skim - Repeats what you will read elsewhere)

- Summary -

Pop art started with the New York artists Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, James Rosenquist, and Claes Oldenburg, all of whom drew on popular imagery and were actually part of an international phenomenon. Following the popularity of the Abstract Expressionists, Pop’s reintroduction of identifiable imagery (drawn from mass media and popular culture) was a major shift for the direction of modernism. The subject matter became far from traditional “high art” themes of morality, mythology, and classic history; rather, Pop artists celebrated commonplace objects and people of everyday life, in this way seeking to elevate popular culture to the level of fine art. Perhaps owing to the incorporation of commercial images, Pop art has become one of the most recognizable styles of modern art.  

 

- Key Ideas -


By creating paintings or sculptures of mass culture objects and media stars, the Pop art movement aimed to blur the boundaries between “high” art and “low” culture. The concept that there is no hierarchy of culture and that art may borrow from any source has been one of the most influential characteristics of Pop art.


It could be argued that the Abstract Expressionists searched for trauma in the soul, while Pop artists searched for traces of the same trauma in the mediated world of advertising, cartoons, and popular imagery at large. But it is perhaps more precise to say that Pop artists were the first to recognize that there is no unmediated access to anything, be it the soul, the natural world, or the built environment. Pop artists believed everything is inter-connected, and therefore sought to make those connections literal in their artwork.


Although Pop art encompasses a wide variety of work with very different attitudes and postures, much of it is somewhat emotionally removed. In contrast to the “hot” expression of the gestural abstraction that preceded it, Pop art is generally “coolly” ambivalent. Whether this suggests an acceptance of the popular world or a shocked withdrawal, has been the subject of much debate.


Pop artists seemingly embraced the post-WWII manufacturing and media boom. Some critics have cited the Pop art choice of imagery as an enthusiastic endorsement of the capitalist market and the goods it circulated, while others have noted an element of cultural critique in the Pop artists’ elevation of the everyday to high art: tying the commodity status of the goods represented to the status of the art object itself, emphasizing art’s place as, at base, a commodity.


The majority of Pop artists began their careers in commercial art: Andy Warhol was a highly successful magazine illustrator and graphic designer; Ed Ruscha was also a graphic designer, and James Rosenquist started his career as a billboard painter. Their background in the commercial art world trained them in the visual vocabulary of mass culture as well as the techniques to seamlessly merge the realms of high art and popular culture.

 

 

 

COMPLETED

WEDNESDAY JAN 23 - Session 6

3 songs with MLK

U2 - In the Name of Love

Stevie Wonder - Happy Birthday

MLK National Holiday Story

Abraham, Martin and John

- - -

HW ASSIGNMENT 3 - DUE WEDNESDAY JAN 23
(HW3 Q & A CLASS HANDOUT - FRI JAN 18 )

Warhol's Race Riot

Christies 1 - Race Riot Video

Christies 2 - A - Z Andy Warhol

Wikipedia -Race Riot

books.google.com - life magazine

- - -

American in the 1960s

http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/1960s.html 1962 - 1963 - 1964

 

MLK & Civil Rights

Make a few quick notes about any of these links

Martin_Luther_King_Jr._Day

obama-adds-alabama-civil-rights-area-to-park-service

March_on_Washington_for_Jobs_and_Freedom

"I Have A Dream"

Choose and write three MLK Quotes MLK Quotes

MLK Memorial https://www.nps.gov/mlkm/index.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King_Jr._Memorial

- - -

Another Memorial on The Mall in Washington DC


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_Veterans_Memorial

Extra Pages

Article - Vietnam Memorial - Maya Lin

http://www.aviewoncities.com/washington/vietnammemorial.htm

www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Maya_Lin.html


 

- - -

Friday Jan 18 - Session 5

ARTIST AT WORK VIDEO - JULIE MEHRETU

Random Song - Wed - Elton John - This is Your Song
Random Song - Fri - Claude Debussy - Claire de Lune

NEW READING - Friday Jan 18th (extended from Wed)
CH1 - World as Artists See It - pgs 8.5 - 20.5 (Skip12-13)

What is the Creative Process? What are the four Roles of the Artist?

Tang Dynasty Polychrome Terracotta Figure

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mogao_Caves

- - -

ART 110 Project 1 - DUE FRIDAY JAN 18

Create A Slideshow Showing Key Concepts of Shape and Space

Cover Page MUST have a Sefie or Photo of You by another showing Foreshortening
File must be a PDF emailed to Instructor at : david.ball@coloradoearlycolleges.org

Number of Slides ?

A - If you take photos of all concepts - Show Only 6+ Concepts (Terms)
B - If you Use MC Escher (or other Artist) - Show 12+ Concepts (Terms)
C - Can Mix multiple Artists 12+ Concepts (Terms)

Each page should include: Concept (Term) - Short Definition - Description of Term present within Selected Work
Image of Selected Work - Title of Work, Date

List of terms to choose from: (You do not need to show all) CH 4 Shape & Space = List of Key Concepts

Sample Blank Template

Student Samples: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4

MC Escher Image Resource Page

- - -

Monday Jan 14 - Session 3

Random Song for the Day: Long Winding Road - Beatles

 

Elements and Principles - Class Handout

- - -

For Monday Jan 14 - CH 4 Space - Pt 2

video : constructing perspective - skim

Homework 1 - Class Handout

- - -

Class Rule #1 - No Copying Others Work! You must do the work.
Both the person who copies and the person who provides will recieve "0" for the assignment.
Multiple offenses will result in notification to student advisors.

- - -